Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye's optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve.
Types of glaucoma-:
There are two major types of glaucoma.
1.Primary open-angle glaucoma-:
This is the most common type of glaucoma. It happens gradually, where the eye does not drain fluid as well as it should (like a clogged drain). As a result, eye pressure builds and starts to damage the optic nerve. This type of glaucoma is painless and causes no vision changes at first.
Some people can have optic nerves that are sensitive to normal eye pressure. This means their risk of getting glaucoma is higher than normal. Regular eye exams are important to find early signs of damage to their optic nerve.
2.Angle-closure glaucoma (also called "closed-angle glaucoma" or "narrow-angle glaucoma")
This type happens when someone's iris is very close to the drainage angle in their eye. The iris can end up blocking the drainage angle. You can think of it like a piece of paper sliding over a sink drain. When the drainage angle gets completely blocked, eye pressure rises very quickly. This is called an acute attack. It is a true eye emergency, and you should call your ophthalmologist right away or you might go blind.
Here are the signs of an acute angle-closure glaucoma attack:
- Your vision is suddenly blurry.
- You have severe eye pain.
- You have a headache.
- You feel sick to your stomach (nausea).
- You throw up (vomit).
- You see rainbow-colored rings or halos around lights.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for people over 60 years old. But blindness from glaucoma can often be prevented with early treatment.
Many people with angle-closure glaucoma develop it slowly. This is called chronic angle-closure glaucoma. There are no symptoms at first, so they don't know they have it until the damage is severe or they have an attack.
Angle-closure glaucoma can cause blindness if not treated right away.
All glaucoma surgery procedures (whether laser or non-laser) are designed to accomplish one of two basic results: decrease the production of intraocular fluid (aqueous humor)
or increase the outflow (drainage) of this same fluid. Occasionally, a procedure will accomplish both.
Currently the goal of glaucoma surgery and other glaucoma treatment is to reduce or stabilize intraocular pressure (IOP). When this goal is accomplished, damage to ocular structures - especially the optic nerve - may be prevented.
When is Glaucoma Surgery Needed?
Most cases of glaucoma can be controlled with one or more drugs, but in some cases surgery may be either preferred or more effective. Sometimes, surgery can eliminate the need for glaucoma eye drops. But this is not always the case.Some recent studies indicate that a laser procedure known as selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) may be equally as effective as glaucoma eye drops for lowering internal eye pressure. This laser surgery might be considered a primary treatment, particularly for people who find it difficult to comply with the strict, regular schedule needed for administering eye drops. Another procedure called a trabeculectomy creates an artificial drainage area. This method is used in cases of advanced glaucoma where optic nerve damage has occurred and the IOP continues to soar. A third common option is a shunt, a device that a surgeon implants in your eye to improve fluid drainage.